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HVUT Filing: Who Is Required to Submit Form 2290

HVUT Filing: Who Is Required to Submit Form 2290


The United States Heavy Vehicle Use Tax (HVUT) is a fundamental aspect of the country’s tax system meant to make sure that heavy highway vehicles contribute to the maintenance and construction of roads they use. It is essential for any vehicle owner or operator to ascertain whether they should file Form 2290. In this blog post, we will look into who must submit Form 2290 and what HVUT filing entails.

What is Form 2290?

Form 2290 or Heavy Highway Vehicle Use Tax Return is an Internal Revenue Service IRS tax form for collecting taxes from owners of heavy highway vehicles. The funds collected through these levies are utilized in maintaining and building public highways. The HVUT tax year extends between July 1st up until June 30th the following year with the amount depending on weight and usage of the vehicle.

Who Must File Form 2290?

Owners of Heavy Highway Vehicles

Accordingly, those having a taxable gross weight of fifty five thousand pounds or more on their heavy motorway cars are amongst the principal individuals obliged to file a Form 2290. These include:

  • Trucking Companies: Firms that own large numbers of trucks used for transportation as well as logistics.
  • Owner-Operators: Independent drivers who own their own trucks.
  • Businesses with Heavy Vehicles: All firms owning heavy vehicles such as construction companies, agricultural ventures among other industries which are road heavy equipment users

Vehicles That Meet Weight Criteria for HVUT

Not all vehicles are taxable under HVUT. Just those that meet the following weight thresholds need to be filed:

Taxable Gross Weight: Vehicles having a taxable gross weight of 55,000 pounds or more. Taxable gross weight is the total of the weights of the vehicle fully equipped and serviced, plus the maximum load carried on public highways.

Vehicles Used On Public Highways

The use of the vehicle on public highways determines whether Form 2290 should be filed. If it is used on a highway during a tax period, then it has an HVUT liability. This involves:

  • Commercial Trucks and Trailers: These refer to those motor vehicles that move goods.
  • Buses: These are large passenger-carrying vehicles used in public or private transportation.

Special Considerations


There are certain exceptions to HVUT for some types of vehicles and situations such as:

  • Logging Vehicles: Exclusively used to carry harvested forest products.
  • Agricultural Vehicles: Mainly utilized for farming purposes with mileage restrictions on public highways.
  • Government Vehicles: Owned and operated by federal, state or local governments.
  • Charitable Organizations: Nonprofit or charitable organizations’ vehicles.

Suspended Vehicles

If a vehicle will not be driven over 5,000 miles (7,500 miles for agricultural vehicles) in a tax period may qualify for suspension from HVUT. Nonetheless, Form 2290 still needs to be filed by its owner stating its status according to IRS regulations.

  • Newly Acquired Vehicles Form 2290 must also be filed by last day of the month past when such newly acquired vehicles were first put into service on a public highway; this results in timely compliance hence avoiding penalties.

Filing Deadlines and Penalties

Annual Filing Deadline

The annual due date for filing the Form 2290 is August 31. This is for vehicles used during July. Failure to file it by this time may result in penalties and interest charges.

Penalties for Non-Compliance

Not filing Form 2290 or paying the HVUT can cause various fines like:

  • Late Filing Penalty: For the most part, it is normally assessed @4.5% of the total tax amount due each month up to a maximum of five months.
  • Late Payment Penalty: Normally it constitutes 0.5% of total tax plus interest charges.

Owners of heavy highway vehicles that meet certain criteria are legally required to file Form 2290. Understanding who should file, exemptions and importance of timely submissions are essential for compliance purposes and avoiding any penalties inflicted on them. Thus, heavy vehicle owners always keep themselves updated with IRS rules so as to provide financial support for safe roads while maintaining smooth operations.

Note: For more information, visit IRS website